In the ideal picture, schools and their resources, including school libraries, are intended to help level the playing field and make sure all American children are academically successful. In practice, we know this is not always the case, that schools in poor neighborhoods have fewer resources and more academic challenges. The Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 looked at 15-year-old students’ library use and educational performance. This provides a snapshot into the material resources and backgrounds that students come from, and gives insight into challenges a school librarian might face in providing equitable services for all children. It also provides evidence that school library “adequacy” plays a role in student performance. The PISA exam also provides an opportunity to look at reading and technology use among teenagers, including what technologies they prefer to use for information, what they prefer to read, and how they use the library. PISA results give us some insight into both what our students know and what they do, and these may help school librarians shape their practice.